Pitch change in male-to-female transsexuals: has phonosurgery a role to play?
Brown M, Perry A, Cheesman AD, Pring T.
Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2000 Jan-Mar;35(1):129-36.
Abstract [Full Text] [PDF]
Male-to-female transsexuals, who have undergone gender reassignment surgery, may continue to have low pitched voices.
Voice therapy may assist them to use their voice in a manner more likely to be perceived as female but, if this approach is unsuccessful, a laryngeal framework operation may be necessary to raise vocal pitch.
This study assessed the effects of crico-thyroid approximation surgery in 14 transsexuals. Modal pitch was significantly increased by surgery but with substantial variation across speakers.
Modal pitch was significantly correlated with judgements of gender by speech and language therapists who listened to tapes of the subjects.
The results suggest that crico-thyroid approximation may be used to raise the pitch of voices of male-to-female transsexuals.
Further research is needed to clarify the reasons for the variability in outcome, to monitor the longer-term changes in voice and the impact for clients of their modified voice in real life situations.
Citation: City University, London, UK. Brown M, Perry A, Cheesman AD, Pring T. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2000 Jan-Mar;35(1):129-36.