Current Status of Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Men
Stephen J. Winters, MD
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,
Rudolph Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Abstract [Full Text] [PDF]
Testosterone plays an essential role in the development of the normal male and in the maintenance of many male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, bone mass, libido, potency, and spermatogenesis.
Androgen deficiency occurs with disorders that damage the testes, including traumatic or surgical castration (primary testicular failure) or disorders in which the gonadotropin stimulation of the testes is reduced (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). The clinical manifestations of androgen deficiency depend on the age at onset and the severity and duration of the deficiency. In adult males, these manifestations may include reduced body hair, decreased muscle mass and strength, increased fat mass, decreased hematocrit, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, infertility, osteoporosis, and depressed mood.
The forms of androgen replacement currently available in the United States are intramuscular depot injections of testosterone esters, oral tablets of testosterone derivatives, and transdermal patches.
For most patients, androgen replacement therapy with testosterone is a safe, effective treatment for testosterone deficiency.
Citation: Arch Fam Med.1999;8:257-263.
[full text at Archives of Family Medicine]