Obtaining rigidity in the neophallus of female-to-male transsexuals: a review of the literature.
Hage J.J., Bloem J.J., Bourman F.G.
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery,
Academic Hospital, Free University,
Amsterdaam, The Netherlands
Abstract [Full Text] [PDF]
In phalloplasty, the use of transplants and implants to obtain sufficient rigidity allowing for sexual penetration is difficult and often has resulted in complications and failure. Resorption, curving, and fracture of autologous cartilage and bone transplants are reported, and rigid implants have a tendency to erode and extrude.
Besides, a constantly rigid phallus may serve as a source of embarrassment to the patient. On the other hand, hydraulic prostheses frequently show mechanical failure compared with nonhydraulic implants. For these reasons, some authorities have their patients use external devices for erection. Others fully rely on edema, scar fibrosis, or congestion to give sufficient rigidity.
In this review, the literature on baculum implantation–on the use of external devices as well as on the use of no stiffener at all–is discussed.
Citation: Ann Plast Surg 1993 Apr;30(4):327-33 an article published on the Internet by PubMed <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/>